Data and tools

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Overview

This section of the Colorado River Science Wiki automatically collates all of the information found under the Data and tools headings on every page in the Science and applications section, and lists those datasets and tools below in the same order as the the pages in the Science and applications section.

Climate patterns and variability

NOAA NCEI Climate at a Glance

The “CAG” tool is a versatile tool that can be used to generate many types of charts, maps, and analyses from NOAA’s official nClimGrid monthly gridded climate dataset. Selecting "Regional" and "Time series" at top brings up several dozen region options, including the Upper Basin and Lower Basin. Selecting "Regional" and "Mapping" allows data to be mapped with river basin boundaries.

Climate Toolbox - Historical Climograph

This tool, developed by researchers at the U. of California-Merced and partners, generates climographs of average (1981-2010) monthly temperature and precipitation for any point, county, HUC8 watershed, or user-selected area, from the gridMET gridded (4 km) climate dataset.


Recent climate change

NOAA NCEI Climate at a Glance - Regional Time Series

The “CAG” tool is a versatile tool that can be used to generate many types of charts, maps, and analyses from NOAA’s official nClimGrid monthly gridded (5 km) climate dataset. The link above opens the Regional and Time Series options, allowing users to plot temperature, precipitation, and other variables for the Upper Basin, Lower Basin, or many other U.S. basins and regions. All variables can be plotted from 1895 to present.

Climate Toolbox - Historical Climate Tracker

This tool, developed by researchers at the U. of California-Merced and partners, generates time series plots for any point, county, HUC8 watershed, or user-selected area from the gridMET gridded (4 km) climate dataset. Many more variables are available from gridMET than from NOAA's nClimGrid; however, gridMET only extends back to 1979. Some drought-related variables calculated from other climate datasets are available through this tool.


Weather and climate monitoring

Weather station data

MesoWest

This site created by the University of Utah provides map-based access to 1000s of observations from the NWS and FAA (ASOS/AWOS) automated networks, RAWS, SNOTEL, APRSWXNET/CWOP (citizen weather stations), and many other networks. Very useful for real-time monitoring of temperature, winds, humidity, and recent precipitation; users can also access historical observations.

ACIS Climate Maps (HPRCC)

These maps, generated from weather station observations from the NWS COOP network and updated daily, are very helpful for monitoring conditions from weekly to annual timescales. Note that the "shaded" maps are created using a very simple interpolation, unlike that used for gridded climate products.

Gridded climate products

NOAA NCEI Climate at a Glance

This versatile tool can be used to generate many types of charts, maps, and analyses from NOAA’s official nClimGrid gridded climate dataset, updated monthly.

Climate Toolbox

This toolset, developed by researchers at the U. of California-Merced and partners, generates many different types of charts and analyses from the gridMET gridded (4 km) climate dataset, updated daily.

WestWide Drought Tracker

These maps display the PRISM gridded climate product, updated monthly, for climate (temperature, precipitation) variables as well as drought indices (PDSI, SPI, SPEI). The "Percentile" maps show how unusual recent conditions are relative to the historical record.


Weather and climate forecasts

Weather Forecasts

NWS Homepage (access to all local forecasts)

The National Weather Service (NWS) homepage has a national map that, on-click, opens up the homepage for that local Weather Forecast Office, which has a region map that on-click brings up the NWS official local weather forecasts (nowcast to 7-day) and any hazard watches/warnings.

NWS National Digital Forecast Map

This interactive map presents a seamless mosaic of all of the local forecasts (out to 7 days) issued by the Weather Forecast Offices across the U.S., for temperature, precipitation, and several dozen other variables.

NWS WPC Quantitative Precipitation Forecast (QPF)

QPFs are specific forecasts of the most likely precipitation amounts over the next 1-7 days, issued as national maps. QPFs are used as inputs to the CBRFC's streamflow forecasts made on both short-term (10-day) and seasonal timescales. The NWS WPC QPF is based on guidance from several different weather models.

CBRFC Quantitative Precipitation Forecast (QPF) Grids

This is the QPF as used by CBRFC to drive their streamflow forecast model system. Days 2-7 are taken from the NWS WPC QPF product shown above; Day 1 comes from the very similar NWS National Blend of Models (NBM) QPF.

GEFS Ensemble Plumes (for cumulative precipitation)

This is another way of displaying a QPF (here, an 8-day ensemble forecast from the GFS weather model), for a single location. This URL shows the forecasted cumulative precipitation for KASE (Aspen, CO); zoom in on the map to select any other of ~20 locations within the Colorado River Basin. The plume shows the uncertainty in the forecast given our imperfect knowledge about the initial atmospheric conditions.

NWS CPC 8-14 day Temperature and Precipitation Outlooks

Because the skill of weather forecasts for beyond 7 days out is much lower, the official NWS "week 2" (8-14-day) forecasts are issued (daily) as probabilistic outlooks, indicating enhanced likelihoods that conditions over that period will fall into the 3 categories of above normal (upper 1/3), near-normal (middle 1/3), or below normal (lower 1/3 of all historical observations). Monthly and seasonal outlooks also use these "tercile" categories.

Sub-seasonal Climate Forecasts

NWS CPC Week 3-4 Temperature and Precipitation Outlooks

These "Week 3-4" outlooks (i.e., for the period 15-30 days after the forecast date) are issued weekly and show enhanced likelihoods that conditions for the forecast period will be in one of 2 categories: above or below the historical median. The Temperature outlook is an official forecast product, but the Precipitation outlook is still considered "experimental" due to low skill/reliability.

NWS CPC 1-month Temperature and Precipitation Outlooks

These monthly outlooks are issued for each full month (January, February, etc.) at two lead times: 0.5 months lead (i.e, issued in middle of prior month) and zero lead (end of prior month). Not surprisingly, the zero-lead monthly outlooks are more skillful since they incorporate short-term weather (0-14 days) forecast guidance, in addition to longer term guidance (equivalent to the Week 3-4 outlooks).

S2S Climate Outlooks for Watersheds

Since 29 June 2022, the forecasts on this tool have not been updated. It is not known when it will become operational again. This interactive web tool, developed by NCAR and Reclamation, presents specific ("deterministic") forecasts of temperature and precipitation anomalies (departures from normal) from several weather/climate models, which can be viewed individually or as an 7-model ensemble ("NMME") average. These models are used as guidance for the NWS sub-seasonal outlooks listed above. The sub-seasonal forecasts available are for weeks 2-3 and 3-4 (CFSv2 only); and 1-month (all NMME models), at three lead times: zero, 1 month, and 2 months; the seasonal forecasts available are for 3-month seasons at three lead times: zero, 1 month, and 2 months.

Seasonal Climate Forecasts

NWS CPC Seasonal (3-month) Temperature and Precipitation Outlooks

These seasonal outlooks are issued monthly for overlapping 3-month periods (Jan-Mar, Feb-April, etc.) at lead times ranging from 0.5 months to 12.5 months. The shorter-lead outlooks are generally more skillful, but skill is relatively low for precipitation at all lead times. As with the CPC 8-14 day outlooks, the seasonal outlooks are probabilistic and based on 3 categories (above normal, near-normal, and below normal).


Projected future climate

The Climate Explorer

The Climate Explorer interactive tool (developed by NOAA and its partners) allows users to generate zoomable climate change maps for temperature and precipitation for the U.S. and northern Mexico, and time-series plots of projected future temperature and precipitation for U.S. counties. Other areas for analysis, such as river basin, cannot be selected. All projected climate data are from the LOCA-downscaled CMIP5 dataset (32 models).

Climate Toolbox

The Climate Toolbox is a diverse set of interactive tools developed by researchers at U. Cal-Merced and partners. All projected climate data are from the MACA-downscaled CMIP5 dataset (20 models).

Climate Toolbox - Climate Mapper

The Climate Mapper tool allows users to generate zoomable climate change maps for temperature as well as precipitation and a broad set of drought, agricultural, and fire-risk indicators. To access the projections, "Future: Projections" must be selected under Choose Data - Time Scale in the upper left. Projected climate data are from the MACA-downscaled CMIP5 dataset (20 models).

Climate Toolbox - Future Time Series

The Future Time Series tool allows users to generate time series for temperature as well as precipitation and a broad set of drought, agricultural, and fire-risk indicators. To access the projections, "Future: Projections" must be selected under Choose Data - Time Scale in the upper left. Projected climate data are from the MACA-downscaled CMIP5 dataset (20 models).

National Climate Change Viewer

The National Climate Change Viewer (NCCV) is a versatile interactive viewer developed by USGS. It allows users to generate zoomable change maps, time series, monthly climographs, and scatterplots for multiple climate variables. This viewer's analysis areas are river basins/watersheds (HUC2, HUC4, and HUC8); a separate viewer allows analyses by state or county. All projected climate data are from the MACA-downscaled CMIP5 dataset (20 models), same as for the Climate Toolbox.


Snowpack

SNOTEL and other in-situ snow data

NRCS Interactive Map - SNOTEL % of median SWE for date

This very versatile tool provides a clear spatial overview of snowpack (SNOTEL) and other hydroclimate conditions across the western U.S., while allowing users to easily drill down into site-level data. Displays both near-real-time data (previous day) and historical data.

NRCS State Snow Survey Snow Products

The NRCS state snow survey sites provide many additional options--varying by state-- for viewing current and historical SNOTEL and snow course data, including monthly summary reports (Basin Outlook Reports).

CBRFC Snow Groups

Provides current year's time-series plots of SNOTEL SWE averaged across multiple SNOTEL sites (“snow groups”) selected to represent a particular catchment or area; ~300 options for catchments within the Colorado River Basin and eastern Great Basin.

CoCoRaHS Interactive Map

Provides daily new snow depth and SWE, and snow depth and SWE on the ground, from the hundreds of volunteer CoCoRaHS observers in the basin. Select Map Options > What to map these snow variables.

Gridded snow products based on in-situ data

NOAA NOHRSC - SNODAS Interactive Map

Provides access to SNODAS daily gridded SWE and other snow variables; the SNODAS model builds and maintains a snowpack based on weather data and also assimilates SNOTEL data.

SnowView – Snow-Water Artificial Neural Network modeling system (SWANN)

This tool, developed at the U. of Arizona, shows a daily gridded snow dataset (SWANN) that uses snow models, assimilated SNOTEL data, and machine-learning methods. Users can compare SWANN with SNODAS for a catchment of interest.

CBRFC Modeled Snowpack – Interactive Conditions Map

Interactive map that provides daily-updated modeled SWE for ~500 catchment-elevation zones in the Colorado River Basin and eastern Great Basin. These modeled SWE data are used as key inputs for CBRFC's seasonal streamflow forecasts.

Gridded snow products based on remotely-sensed data

ASO (Airborne Snow Observatories, Inc.) - Basin Map

ASO uses airborne lidar to measure snow depths across a basin on demand; these depth measurements are combined with snow-density modeling to estimate SWE with high accuracy at 50-m spatial resolution. Free registration required to view the data for all ASO-flown basins.

Other real-time snowpack information

Colorado Dust-on-Snow (CODOS) reports

The CODOS program at the Center for Snow and Avalanche Studies (CSAS) tracks the deposition and emergence of dust layers in the snowpack, and snowpack temperature and other metrics, at 11 mountain pass locations throughout Colorado.


Soil moisture

Observational Data

NRCS SNOTEL/SCAN (current conditions, 20 in. depth)

A subset of the NRCS SNOTEL and SCAN stations are equipped with soil moisture sensors. The NRCS Interactive Map allows users to view current conditions at each station by selecting the desired measurement (e.g., soil moisture value at 20 in. depths). Navigate to individual stations to access data on previous soil moisture conditions.

Modeled Data

Colorado River Basin Forecast Center

The Colorado River Basin Forecast Center provides modeled soil moisture data (as opposed to single point observations) in map formats. Users can navigate to see either current conditions as compared to a percent normal value or may look at static, gridded maps of modeled soil moisture data from previous months (as in Figure 2).

NASA GRACE-FO Soil Moisture Maps

The NASA GRACE-FO website provides maps of gridded soil moisture conditions for the contiguous United States based on wetness percentile. Maps are updated weekly.


Evapotranspiration (ET)

Reference ET

Several weather-station networks in the basin states, mainly serving the agricultural sector, have instrumentation for all of the variables (temperature, solar radiation, humidity, winds) needed for real-time calculations of Reference ET. Typically, Reference ET is calculated hourly and daily, to the nearest 0.01 in. or 1 mm.

CoAgMET

Colorado; 90 active stations in agricultural areas.

AZMET

Arizona; 27 active stations in agricultural and urban areas.

UT AgWeather

Utah and adjacent areas in ID, WY, CO, NM; 130 active stations in agricultural and urban areas.

California Irrigation Management Information System (CIMIS)

California; 150 active stations in agricultural and urban areas.

Evaporative Demand Drought Index (EDDI)

EDDI is based on Reference ET (calculated from gridded NLDAS-2 meteorological data, using the same method as for the in-situ data above) and standardized relative to historical Reference ET for each gridpoint over the time window (2 weeks to 1 year) of interest. EDDI can offer early warning of agricultural and hydrologic drought by providing near-real-time information on the emergence or persistence of anomalous evaporative demand.

OpenET

OpenET is an open-source platform and data viewing tool that brings together several satellite-based ET estimation methods to provide daily, monthly, and annual ET estimates at the field scale. The methods currently in the OpenET ensemble include ALEXI/DisAlexi, eeMETRIC, geeSEBAL, PT-JPL, SIMS, and SSEBop. Free registration required to view data.


Streamflow

Gaged streamflow - Real-time and Historical

USGS National Water Dashboard

This US interactive map shows in the default view all active USGS gages and current streamflow. It can also show many other hydrologic parameters measured at USGS gages and stations, including those related to surface water, groundwater, and water quality, and can also overlay current weather radar and recent precipitation. Mouse-over a gage to see a popup with its name and the data for the selected layer; click on that gage to open the real-time data page for that gage.

USGS Water Watch interactive map

This interactive map is similar to the one above; the linked view of the map highlights over 530 active gages across the Colorado River Basin, and hundreds more in adjacent basins (Figure 2). Zoom in to see all gages, mouse-over a gage to see a yellow popup with its name and current streamflow statistics, and click on that gage's name within that popup to open the real-time data page for that gage. On the real-time data page, click "Change time span" to plot and retrieve historical gaged flow data.

USGS NWIS: Map View - Colorado River Basin

This interactive map is similar to the above two but shows both the ~530 active gages (dark gray) and the ~380 inactive gages (light gray) across the basin for which daily streamflow over some period has been archived in the USGS National Water Information System. Click on a gage to get see the name; click "Access data" to go to the (old-USGS-style) data page for that gage.

Reclamation Boulder Canyon Operations Office (BCOO) - Data Explorer

Reclamation's BCOO provides near-real-time access to flow data from about 15 gages on the lower Colorado River, below Davis Dam, that are not part of the USGS network.

Colorado DWR Stations - Current and Historical

This interactive map shows over 360 active gages, and over 600 inactive ('historical') gages, within the 4 water divisions that comprise Colorado's portion of the Colorado River Basin. These gages include all those shown on the USGS map, along with others operated by DWR and local agencies. Zoom in to locate a gage of interest, mouse-over to see its name, and click to open a popup showing the length of the record. Click "View more details" to open the data page for that gage.

Unregulated inflow - Reclamation

24-Month Study Report - Archive (back to 2010)

Reclamation's 24-Month Study Reports, in addition to projecting system inflows and conditions ~24 months into the future, includes the observed (unregulated) inflows to each system reservoir for 12 months prior to the report date. These observed flows are shaded in gray and labeled "Historical".

Unregulated streamflow and inflow - NOAA CBRFC

CBRFC Streamflow Volumes

From the basin map shown, click the gage of interest so that the popup appears, then the link within the popup to open the webpage for that gage. For the current year and recent years, select the Water Year of interest at lower left (back to 2011); the forecast evolution plot will show that year's daily cumulative observed (unregulated) flows, in orange. For the full record (30-100 years), click Historical Volumes under "Data" in the lower right. A list of all historical April-July unregulated flows, in order of increasing flow, will be shown.

Adjusted streamflow - NRCS

NRCS Interactive Map - Observed Streamflow Volume

This link shows the NRCS Interactive Map customized to show the adjusted streamflow for the current water-year-to-date, as a % of the period-of-record average. Click on a gage of interest to bring up a popup, click on the popup to expand it, and then click on Data Reports and either Water Year Table or Water Year Chart for the current year's monthly flows. For historical flows at that gage, open the Water Year Table, click on the Create/Modify Report tab in the upper left. When the tab opens, click the first checkbox for 'stream volume, adjusted' then below that, change Time Period to "Period of Record", then click on the View Report tab at upper left.

Natural streamflow

Reclamation - Current Natural Flow Data

The Excel file linked on this page contains estimated monthly natural flows for the 20 locations in the Upper Basin, and 9 in the Lower Basin, that are the inflow points for the Colorado River Simulation System (CRSS). Most prominent among these is the Colorado River at Lees Ferry. These flow data are updated every year or so by Reclamation to extend the record forward, but they are always 1-2 years behind the most recently completed water year. Provisional data for the Lees Ferry gage only for the most recent water years are found on this page.


Paleohydrology

TreeFlow

The TreeFlow resource provides access to data, metadata, and plots of nearly all existing tree-ring reconstructions of streamflow for the Colorado River Basin, as well as other river basins throughout the U.S. Currently there are 31 gages in the Upper Basin and 4 gages in the Lower Basin for which reconstructions are available.

PaleoFlow

The Paleoflow tool provides additional analysis and plotting options for the Colorado River Basin reconstructions that are available on TreeFlow, including dynamic time-series plots, analysis of extreme events, and comparisons of distributions (probability density functions) between two periods. Make sure Time Resolution = Annual to see the full list of reconstructions.


Seasonal streamflow forecasts

Operational Forecasts

CBRFC

CBRFC has multiple ways to access and view their seasonal water supply forecasts and related data:

CBRFC Conditions Map - Water Supply Forecasts

The Conditions Map can display several different types of hydroclimate information, depending on the tab selected. The Water Supply Forecasts tab, when opened, defaults to the most probable (50% exceedance) values for the official 1st of month forecasts, but can also display the latest daily ESP forecasts ("Latest Model Guidance"). Clicking on the triangles (forecast points) brings up a thumbnail forecast evolution plot for that point; clicking within the plot opens a page specific to that forecast point, with an interactive forecast evolution plot and links to plots for previous years, calibration and validation data, and historical streamflow volumes for that point.

CBRFC Upper Colorado Situational Awareness

This page shows the most recent official forecasts for Lake Powell inflows (~all Upper Basin runoff) for April-July and the water year; maps of observed/modeled soil moisture, snowpack, and precipitation used to inform the forecasts; and graphs showing how the sub-basins' contributions and overall forecasted volume compares with average conditions.

CBRFC Water Supply Official Forecast List

This page features an interactive table with the official 1st of month forecasts for all forecast points. Like the forecast map, it links to the pages for each point.

CBRFC Water Supply Forecast Discussion

This document (PDF) discusses provides a general overview of the official (1st and 15th of month) CBRFC forecasts, describing the weather/watershed conditions that have led to the forecasts, as well as forecasts and outlooks for upcoming weather.

CBRFC Water Supply Webinars

From January through May, CRBFC presents one-hour webinars around the 7th of the month to explain the latest streamflow forecasts, the weather and snow conditions leading up to the forecasts, and the weather conditions forecasted for the next two weeks. Scroll down to "Presentations 20xx" for a link to the webinar archive for the current year; and then find the Water Supply Webinar" of interest. Both the slides and a recorded video with slides are available.

NRCS

NRCS likewise has several ways to access and view their seasonal water supply forecasts and related data.

NRCS Interactive Map - Forecasted Streamflow Volumes

NRCS Interactive Map

The NRCS Interactive Map is a versatile tool to access and view all NRCS hydroclimate data, including the seasonal water supply forecasts. The link above has been specifically set up to show the most probable (50% exceedance) values for the current seasonal water supply forecasts, for individual points, but users can select other ways to visualize the forecast data, e.g., by basin, as percentiles, or for different forecast periods. Similar to the CBRFC Conditions Map, clicking on an individual forecast point will bring up a small window with the name of the point and forecasted streamflow volume; clicking on that window will bring up other options for viewing additional data for that point, including other statistics for the forecasted streamflow, and the observed streamflows for the water year.

NRCS Water Supply Forecast Chart

The Water Supply Forecast Chart shows the potential range for the forecasted streamflows (90%-70%-50%-30%-10% exceedances), similar to the shaded bands on the CBRFC forecast evolution plots. Note that the sub-basins within the CRB are shown by state; forecasts for Colorado R at Glen Canyon Dam (i.e., Lake Powell inflows) are accessed under Utah >Southwestern Utah.

NRCS State Basin Outlook Reports

The Basin Outlook Reports (also known as Water Supply Outlook Reports in some states) are issued monthly or semi-monthly from January through June by the state-level NRCS Snow Survey Offices, and supplement the NRCS seasonal water supply forecasts with narratives of statewide precipitation, snowpack, and water supply conditions, and additional graphics showing the water supply forecasts by sub-basin, alongside snowpack, precipitation, and reservoir conditions.

Experimental Forecasts

WRF-Hydro/Airborne Snow Observatories Assimilated Hydrologic Forecasts: Colorado

Under the aegis of the Colorado Airborne Snow Measurements (CASM) workgroup and program, the WRF-Hydro modeling team at NCAR is producing experimental seasonal water-supply forecasts, for several dozen gages in Colorado, that assimilate SWE estimates from the Airborne Snow Observatories (ASO) lidar system. In 2023, the forecasts were produced every 1-2 weeks from early May through June.

Woodson Lees Ferry WY flow forecast

This forecast procedure was developed by David Woodson as a part of his PhD research at the University of Colorado Boulder. The forecast uses a machine learning (random forest) model trained on Reclamation annual natural flow for the Colorado River at Lees Ferry, AZ for water years 1921-2023 as the predictand, and predictors including the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), and 12-month forecasts of precipitation and temperature from a climate model.

Utah Climate Center - Multi-Year Forecasts of Colorado River Water Supply

These forecasts differ from the other ones listed above in having a much longer outlook period: 1-3 years. These forecasts leverage research that has identified "long-term ocean memory": Anomalies of sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) in the North Pacific and tropical Atlantic, up to 44 months prior to the forecasted year, that impart predictability of Upper Basin streamflow (natural flow at Lees Ferry).


Floods

USGS Peak streamflow records for key stream gages

The data inventory for most USGS stream gages includes a table of annual peak streamflows, which can also be viewed in graph form. Note that the values for extremely high flows may be outside of the calibration of the stage-discharge relationship for that gage, and likely have greater error than more typical streamflow levels.


Hydrologic modeling

NOAA Sacramento Soil Moisture Accounting (Sac-SMA) Model

Sac-SMA is the primary model used for operational streamflow forecasting by the NOAA Colorado Basin River Forecast Center (CBRFC) and the other NOAA RFCs. Sac-SMA represents soil moisture and storage characteristics to effectively simulate streamflow. The Sac-SMA model is available in a number of coding languages, including Fortran, MATLAB, and R. Sac-SMA is used in NOAA CBRFC forecasts.

SNOW-17

SNOW-17 is a temperature-index model that uses precipitation, temperature, and the freezing level to simulate snowpack accumulation and ablation. It is typically run as a module paired with Sac-SMA, to add snowpack processes to Sac-SMA, such as for NOAA CBRFC’s forecasts. The input parameters include precipitation and temperature; precipitation is characterized as rain or snow depending on the temperature. NOAA has current Snow-17 Fortran code; the R code for Sac-SMA linked above includes SNOW-17 as a module.

Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model (University of Washington)

VIC is a grid-based land-surface model (LSM) that solves the energy balance and water balance at the surface and subsurface using physical equations. VIC is open-source and is currently on its fifth major version; development and maintenance of the ‘official’ version of VIC is led by the Computational Hydrology Group in Civil and Environmental Engineering at the University of Washington. The main page linked above provides access to code and documentation for running VIC on multiple platforms.

Structure for Unifying Multiple Modeling Alternatives (SUMMA) (NCAR)

SUMMA is a hydrologic modeling approach that is built on a common set of physical equations and a common numerical solver, which together constitute the structural core of the model. Different modeling options can then be implemented within the structural core. The main page linked above provides access to the Fortran code and documentation for running SUMMA.


Projected future hydrology

Climate Toolbox

The Climate Toolbox is a diverse set of interactive tools developed by researchers at U. Cal-Merced and partners. All projected climate data are from the MACA-downscaled CMIP5 dataset. The projections of hydrologic variables in Climate Toolbox are based on a reduced ensemble (10 vs. 20) of CMIP5-MACA climate projections (temperature and precipitation) that have been run through the VIC hydrologic model. Note that with 10 members, this ensemble of hydrologic projections may not reflect the full range of potential climate (and hydrology) futures shown across all CMIP5 projections.

Climate Toolbox - Future Streamflows

The Future Streamflows tool allows users to generate monthly hydrographs of modeled historical and future streamflows (in cubic feet/second) for over 140 gages in basins across the western U.S. and Canada, including 15 gages within the Colorado River Basin. This is especially useful for visualizing the changes in streamflow timing associated with future climate change.

Climate Toolbox - Future Boxplots

The Future Boxplots allows users to generate boxplots of modeled historical and future area-averaged projected runoff (in inches) for user-selected points, rectangular areas, counties, and HUC8 watersheds.

National Climate Change Viewer

The National Climate Change Viewer (NCCV) allows users to generate zoomable change maps, time series, monthly climographs, and scatterplots for multiple climate and hydrology variables, including area-averaged runoff (in inches or cm). The viewer's analysis areas are river basins/watersheds (HUC2, HUC4, and HUC8). All projected climate data are from the MACA-downscaled CMIP5 dataset (all 20 models); the hydrology variables such as runoff are derived from the USGS Simple Water-balance Model driven with the projected temperature and precipitation.

GDO-DCHP: Downscaled CMIP3 and CMIP5 Climate and Hydrology Projections

This portal allows downloading of the CMIP5-LOCA-VIC projected hydrology dataset, from which Figures 1 and 2 are derived, in netCDF or ASCII (text) format. (There are no visualization tools on the site.) The tab "Projections: Complete Archive" allows users to download the entire dataset for all of CONUS; most users will want to select the "Projections: Subset Request" tab and step through the tabs to select the time period, area of interest, dataset and models, and data format.


Colorado River Mid-term Modeling System (CRMMS)

24-Month Study Reports

The output of the primary monthly run of CRMMS in 24-Month Study mode (using most probable inflows) is released around the 15th of each month. These results are formatted by Reclamation as a standardized set of data tables totaling 17 pages. The Upper Colorado and Lower Colorado regional offices package this set of data tables differently; Upper Colorado adds a 9-page narrative summary for the Upper Colorado reservoirs, while Lower Colorado adds a single cover page with very a brief summary. Note that both report "flavors" contain the results for both Upper Basin and Lower Basin reservoirs.

24-Month Study Reports - as distributed by Upper Colorado Region

24-Month Study Reports - as distributed by Lower Colorado Region

Supplemental 24-Month Study runs

As noted above, two supplemental runs of CRMMS in 24-Month Study mode are performed either 4 times per year, or monthly (as is true as of March 2022), depending on the projected reservoir conditions. These runs, based on minimum probable and maximum probable inflows, bracket most of the uncertainty in future conditions.

Probable Min/Probable Max runs

CRMMS Visualization Tool

This visualization tool shows the results of the latest month's runs of CRMMS in both 24-Month Study mode and Ensemble mode, for all 12 reservoirs represented in CRMMS. From the homepage, select the latest month, then the reservoir of interest, then "Dashboard" to see modeled monthly inflow, outflow, elevation, and storage, going out 24 months from the latest month.

Colorado River System 5-Year Probabilistic Projections

The CRMMS 5-year probabilistic projections of future conditions of the Colorado River system are typically updated by Reclamation in January, April, and August. The linked page shows the results of the most recent projections in tabular form, along with a description of the modeling approach and assumptions.


Colorado River Simulation System (CRSS)

Post-2026 Operations Explorations Web Tool

In December 2023, Reclamation released this web tool to support the development of alternatives for the Post-2026 Operations NEPA process. The web tool provides an interactive interface to CRSS, allowing stakeholders to develop operational strategies using built-in customizable options and actually test them in CRSS.

Studies featuring long-term CRSS projections

Reclamation does not produce regular operational CRSS projections at long-term (>5-year) timescales. Instead, CRSS is run at longer timescales as needed for specific studies and policy analyses. Below are links to the studies (and report volumes therein) that drew on, and in some cases, presented CRSS results, in reverse chronological order:

  • International Boundary and Water Commission Minute 323 (2017)
  • International Boundary and Water Commission Minute 319 (2012)


Consumptive uses and losses

Reclamation reporting of consumptive uses and losses (CUL) data

Consumptive uses and losses (CUL) reports are prepared by Reclamation pursuant to the Colorado River Basin Project Act of 1968 (Public Law 90 537) and provide 5-year reports covering major uses within each basin (Upper and Lower) of the Colorado River. The reports for the Upper and Lower basins are not prepared in parallel and contain different metrics for consumptive uses and losses.

Prior to 2006, 5-year CUL reports that covered both the Upper Basin and Lower Basin (including deliveries to Mexico) were made available. Since 2006, the 5-year CUL reports only cover the Upper Basin. Lower Basin consumptive uses and Mexico deliveries are summarized in the annual Water Accounting Reports (issued since 1964), but these reports do not contain estimates of Lower Basin reservoir evaporation or other losses.


Agricultural water use

Reclamation reporting of consumptive uses and losses

The Reclamation Consumptive Uses and Losses Reports (since 2006, covering only the Upper Basin) contain estimates of aggregate agricultural use within the Upper Basin, based on mapped irrigated acreage and the calculated consumption by crop and location. These estimates may change significantly in the future due to the new method adopted in 2022 by the UCRC and Reclamation. The Reclamation Water Accounting Reports (covering only the Lower Basin) breaks down consumptive use by point of diversion, which identifies the individual water usage of a number of agricultural users and irrigation districts, but not all agricultural users.


Municipal water use

Richter (2023) study and data on Colorado River municipal water use

Reclamation reporting of Consumptive uses and losses (CUL) data

The Reclamation CUL Reports (since 2006, covering only the Upper Basin) contain estimates of aggregate municipal and industrial use within the Basin, based on population and assumed per-capita use. Municipal use that occurs outside of the basin (e.g., Colorado’s Front Range) is classified as “exports.” The Reclamation Water Accounting Reports (covering only the Lower Basin) breaks down consumptive use by point of diversion, which can identify the use by some of the municipalities and metropolitan areas in the Lower Basin states, but not others.


Salinity

Observed Salinity

Salinity Control Monitoring Reports

Measured salinity at the established monitoring locations (below Hoover Dam, below Parker Dam, and at Imperial Dam) are reported in the appendices of the Salinity Control Monitoring Reports by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Forum.

Modeled Salinity

Both historical and future salinity and salt loads have been estimated using a variety of models. NRCS USGS, and Reclamation have used the SLOAD, and SPARROW models to estimate salinity in the Colorado River.

SPARROW  (SPAtially Referenced Regression On Watershed attributes) - USGS [1] SPARROW uses nonlinear regression equations to estimate the  transport of analytes (such as salts) through river networks, including estimates of upper Colorado River Basin salinity


Metals and acid mine drainage

USGS abandoned mine water quality database

The USGS abandoned mine and water quality database is hosted by the USGS and houses USGS publications, data releases, and relevant reports pertaining to the introduction of harmful substances into the environment from mines and tailings.

EPA water quality database

The EPA reports and releases relevant data from acid mine drainage sites at which the EPA is involved. Specific pages host data specifically relevant to the Gold King Mine spill (2015).


Tamarisk and invasive plants

USGS INHABIT (Invasive Species Habitat Tool)

This web-mapping tool allows users to select an invasive plant species, including those mentioned above and over 200 other species, and map the modeled potential for that species to occur in new locations based on its known occurrences and the environmental characteristics of those locations. The known occurrences can also be displayed (“training data”) along with the current range (“range polygon”).

USDA PLANTS (Plant List of Attributes, Names, Taxonomy, and Symbols)

This database contains information on thousands of plant species found in the U.S., including invasive species. Use the ‘Basic Search’ in the upper left to find the profile page for the species of interest. You can then click on the ‘Plant Guide’ links towards the upper right, see the range map on that page (zoom in to see the county level), and click the tabs at the top to see other information about that species.


Invasive mussels

USGS Nonindigenous Aquatic Species (NAS) database

The NAS database is a central repository for accurate and spatially referenced reports of nonindigenous aquatic species in the U.S. Figure 2 is based on data from the NAS.

Reclamation RISE database

Reclamation’s RISE database includes invasive mussel monitoring data, and reports on Reclamation projects investigating mussel detection and control methods; enter “mussel” in the search bar.